Adhesive - A substance that bonds two other materials together. Commonly referred to as glue.
Air-dried lumber - Boards that have dried naturally by stacking them in the open air. Air flows between the boards, allowing moisture in the wood to evaporate. Air drying can take as long as one year per inch of board thickness. In all but the driest regions, moisture content rarely falls below 12 to 20 percent without additional drying indoors.
Apron - A horizontal piece of wood that supports the top or seat and connects the legs of a table or chair.
Burl- A knotty growth from a tree with a convoluted, complex grain.
Countersink - A shallow hole in a workpiece that matches the shape of a flathead screw head. When used it positions the head flush with the surrounding surface.
Crosscut - A cut across the woods grain.
Hardwood - Wood derived from broadleaf trees such as Walnut, Oak, Cherry, and Ash. In temperate regions, these trees are deciduous, dropping their leaves annually. Called angiosperms, the trees produce seeds in the form of fruits or nuts. Not all hardwoods are hard and heavy. Balsa, for example, is classified as a hardwood although it contains light, soft wood.
Heartwood - The mature darker wood at the center of a tree.
Hone - To polish & refine a cutting edge by rubbing it against a hard, smooth stone or other surface.
Jig - A device that holds a workpiece or tool so that a woodworking task can be performed efficiently and accurately.
Jig Saw - A tool that can form circular cuts by moving the work piece past a blade rapidly moving up and down.
Knot - A circular pattern in timber, caused by a dead branch that was not fully integrated into the tree before it was cut down. A loose knot is one that cannot be relied upon to remain in place in the piece. A tight knot, on the other hand, is fixed by growth or position in the wood structure so that it firmly retains its place in the surrounding wood.
Molding - A strip of material with various profiles used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration.
Moisture content - The total amount of water in a piece of wood, (expressed as a percentage of the wood's over-dry weight). The content is determined using a moisture meter. For kiln-dried wood, moisture content generally runs from 4 to 10 percent.
Penetrating finish - A finish usually wiped on or brushed on that soaks into wood pores so that it resides in the wood itself. Tung oil, Danish oil and Linseed oil, are examples of some penetrating finishes.
Pilot hole - A hole drilled in a workpiece to receive the threaded portion of a screw. The pilot hole is typically slightly smaller than the screw's thread diameter.
Rip - A cut parallel to the wood grain.
Rough-cut - To cut a workpiece slightly oversize in thickness, width, and/or length, prior to trimming it to its final desired dimension.
Softwood - Wood derived from needleleaf trees such as Pine, Spruce, Cedar, or Fir. Commonly known as conifers, these trees produce seeds encased in cones, and are also called gymnosperms. Softwood trees are almost always evergreen, retaining their needles year-round. Some softwoods, such as spruce, are soft, but others such as ponderosa pine, are hard and remarkably strong.
Turning - The skill of using a lathe; the object make on a lathe.
Veneer - Very thin slices of wood used for inlay or to cover surfaces.
Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making (Cabinetry and Furniture), wood carving, joinery, carpentry, and woodturning.